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CDM blockages



Even after 20 years of Montreal Protocol implementation, Greenhouse gases from all refrigeration equipment worldwide added up still contribute approximately as much to global warming as all aviation.  Available technologies can eliminate a large part of the Greenhouse gases from direct emissions of refrigerant liquids (the chemicals circulating in refrigeration circuits, esp.fluorocarbons).  The Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism can accelerate technical change in that sense when CDM methodologies are designed to address these Montreal Protocol leftovers.

The World Bank Carbon Finance Unit has shown the way by creating a methodology for chillers (large building air-conditioners), AM0060, against considerable hesitation among the U.N.-FCCC’s Methodology Panel.  The large unit size of chillers is favourable to the typical CDM project design.  Household refrigerators are a bigger challenge. 

Unfortunately, UNIDO and Indian manufacturers have been rather short-sighted when they established AM0070 and AM0071, CDM methodologies for household refrigerator production.

On the contrary, GTZ-Proklima created AMS III.X under my guidance, a CDM methodology operating further down the refrigeration value chain and giving the gains from global emissions trading to households opting for the most efficient refrigerators.  The success of AMS III.X is also due to a strategic Public-Private Partnership between GTZ and Bosch/Siemens (BSH) I have designed.

  Modernizing refrigeration
  equipment with CDM


CDM for low-income

Policy dimensions      

AMS III.X is a unique methodology by combining

  • poverty reduction - creates user type 'those that can never afford a new refrigerator'
                                      - credits 'suppressed demand', savings in usage previously sacrificed
                                       - targets the largest share of low-income households' electricity use

  • extends EU policy into a global standard by being the first CDM methodology for refrigerators and imposing GWP<15 and CFC recycling >90% for all future refrigerator CDM projects in households

  • power utility Demand-side Management by enabling these to invest in a reduction of demand from low-income households

  • synergy between Montreal and Kyoto Protocols by connecting energy efficiency and ozone-depleting substance abatement

  • slum upgrading through avoiding electricity theft and through integrating in other social services

While sustainability criteria are the task of national CDM bodies, this methodology demonstrates building poverty reduction into the operational set-up of CDM projects.  In every country electricity distribution and use is marked by socio-economic factors that permit CDM methodologies to alleviate energy poverty and create in particular health and gender co-benefits.

Thomas Grammig



+49-177 - 83 89 788