Thomas Grammig

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Management Parameters for Technology Co-operation

coherent and complete set of management tools for the whole

continuum of technological and sociocultural parameters:


indicative alternatives:

task structuration

local and foreign output

technology output


performance indicator

role conflict


meeting agendas

accessory data

non-essential aspects     


horizontal - vertical

parallel - intermittent

function - object

aggregated - specific

integrated - individual

passively tolerated - acknowledged

discretionary - public

separate, fixed - intermittent

extensive - little

group - individual

dictionary - vernacular, no metaphors

A priori it is not possible to know how these parameters influence each other.  The relations among project participants determine how and when they are linked and when they are independent.  Without other indicators about project implementation, these parameters are often used to compare projects and infer what project design is appropriate.  Based on ethnographic work, I use observable interactional patterns in implementation 'Latent Processes' to describe, compare, design and document implementation.  These processes are latent because the individuals in a project can establish them.  By virtue of the definition, these latent processes allow to group parameters and relate them to a few contextual features.  However, this is impossible in a strong sense, the grouping is far from certain, more often than not the subsumptions are too partial.

So for illustration purposes only, I list below the latent processes that are often determinant for a project parameter and for the influence of the parameter alternative on implementation.  For each parameter and latent process I suggest one contextual feature that could in some cases allow comparisons because this feature is a major precondition why the latent process appears and what project participants do with it (or in other words why the parameter affects that latent process).  This is an illustration that might allow you to see whether your planning concern could benefit from the analysis of the latent processes. 

Latent Process
Context and Transferability        
task structuration
horizontal - vertical
Content exposing biases: relativ to Human Resource Management, sector, or
       educational institution
stakeholder interest and capacity appear beyond core purpose
  Interface changing competition: relativ to larger social context but
      project autonomy becomes possible over time
stakeholder relations evolve with participants' mutual recognition
local and foreign output
parallel - intermittent
Content relativ to economic sectors because experts' biases have less scope,
favours specific linkages and conflicts
  Exchange local/foreign attributes: relativ to historical units, economic and trade patterns (Friedman), significance for strategies, relativ to aid sector / alliances
technology output
function - object
differences in sociocultural ends: relativ to educational institution,
STS structures are most often institutionally defined

Exchange weak influence by adding identity risks: extent relativ to social identities
     among project participants
  Interface affected by categories but ambiguities are reduced: extent individuals
performance indicator
discretionary - public
Content by indirectly strengthening attribution: extent modes of HRM
  Interface can reduce ambiguities: extent individuals
role conflict
ignore - acknowledge
Exchange endo-cases: extent social history
exo-cases weak influence: extent relative to historical unit
  Interface endo-cases weak influence: extent social history
exo-cases: forces project out of social history
official reporting, Content by strengthening attribution
documentation Exchange endo-cases: individual leaves group
integrated - individual Interface only weak influence: reduces rhetoric scale
meetings and agendas
separate - intermittent
Exchange by changing subject / object relation in team:
       procedures adapt to social identity

Interface by allowing ambiguity only when roles, rhetoric
       interact extent: project unit
accessory data,
Exchange exo-cases: shifts alterity (otherness emotion) to other objects in social history;   endo-cases: little influence on implementation
extensive - little Content by revealing ends: extent relative to sector
non-essential aspects:
hours, transport, food
Exchange exo-cases: social identity
endo-cases: individuals to pledge social identity
group - individual Interface reduces / reinforce group identity:  extent relative to HRM modes and sector
language Interface efforts to translate far more relevant than content,
specific knowledge corpora
dictionary - vernacular Content by labelling tacitness

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